A collection of documents to help users interact with the Monero network and its components.
Guides and resources for developers.
One of the most complete resources about Monero. If you have a question which is not in this FAQ, you will likely find the answer on the Monero StackExchange.
The subreddit dedicated to help monero users. Basically community members helping each others. Use the search option.
Old and known resources with a good number of guides and howto's
The terminology used in Monero can be quite complex, for this reason we have the Moneropedia. A comprehensive list of terms that you often see and their explanation. If you don't know what a word means or you would like to have more info about it, just visit the Moneropedia. Some example of often searched terms are: node, fungibility, view key, pruning.
Monero is an open source community project. Meaning that there is no company who runs it and there is no CEO who hires people. Everything is built by volunteers or community-funded contributors who dedicate their time to the project. There are many ways to contribute:
Translations. It's easy and anybody speaking a language beside English can help. Translations happen mostly on Weblate.
Contact a Workgroup. Almost everything in Monero is managed by workgroups, which are groups of contributors (often lead by a coordinator) working on some specific aspect of the development. Some examples are: the localization workgroup (translations), the community workgroup, the GUI workgroup, the Outreach workgroup and so on. Workgroups are mostly independent and have their own structure. Contact the workgroup that interests you and ask how you can help. For a list of contacts see the Hangouts.
Do what you can do best. Are you a designer? Create Monero related images and spread them around. Are you a writer? Write about Monero. The only limit is your imagination. Find what you like to do and do it for Monero!
The Outreach workgroup wrote a useful article to help newcomers: Getting started with Monero.
In past, you needed Bitcoin to buy Monero, but that's not the case anymore. You can directly trade Monero for national currencies (USD, EUR, GBP, etc) or other cryptocurrencies on many exchanges. Some require KYC (proof of identification); others do not, like decentralized exchanges. On this website is available a list of exchanges where it's possible to buy/sell Monero (XMR): 商家 ＆ 服務.
門羅幣並不是基於比特幣所開發，它是基於 CryptoNote 協定所開發。比特幣是完全透明的系統，人們可以完整看見資金與金額是如何從一個使用者發送至另一個使用者。門羅幣在所有交易中都對這些隱私資訊提供了保護。它也擁有動態 @區塊 與手續費系統、抵抗 ASIC 礦機的工作量證明 (RandomX) 演算法、 @尾發行 與一些其他的改變。
Monero is an Esperanto word which means 'coin'. Initially Monero was called 'Bitmonero', which translates to 'Bitcoin' in Esperanto. After the community decided to fork from the original maintainer, 'bit' was dropped in favour of simply 'Monero'.
Monero used to have 2 network upgrades (hard forks) a year, but this is not the case anymore. The choice of the biannual hard forks was taken in order to be able to introduce important consensus changes, which added privacy features and network-wide improvements (For example bulletproofs and CLSAG both required a hard fork) and avoid the ossification of the protocol. Recently, the biannual hard forks included changes to the PoW algorithm, to preserve ASIC-resistance.
The dev community and the Core Team agree that the protocol is stable and mature enough and biannual hard forks are not necessary anymore. Furthermore, the ecosystem around Monero has grown exponentially during the years and frequent protocol changes would be increasingly hard to coordinate, could be detrimental to the growth of the ecosystem and to the user experience. Cherry on the top, the new algorithm RandomX is ensuring long term ASIC-resistance, so regular changes are not needed anymore. Network upgrades will still be used to add important protocol improvements and consensus changes, but at a lower and less strict frequency (every 9-12 months). The last hard fork was on August 13th 2022.
During the years the community has created a vast amount of informative content like articles and videos. Most of these videos are publicly available on platforms like YouTube. On this website we host a few videos that explain the fundamentals of Monero. To optimize their effectiveness, they should be viewed in sequence:
No. Monero uses a completely non-interactive, non-custodial, and automatic process to create private transactions. By contrast for mixing services, users opt-in to participate.
門羅幣使用三種不同的技術來保護隱私： @環狀簽名 、 @環簽保密交易 (RingCT) 與 @隱匿性地址 。這些技術可以隱藏發送者與接收者在 @交易 中的資訊。所有的交易在網路上都是強制保護的，你無法意外地發送一筆透明的交易，這是門羅幣獨特的功能，你不需要信任任何人來保護你的隱私。
沒有所謂的百分之百匿名。 正常情況下，門羅幣能提供的匿名程度就是相對於不使用門羅幣能提供的保護程度。門羅幣也有可能出現 bug，即使沒有，還是有可能存在著一些在門羅幣使用中推測出些許隱私資訊的方法，不論是現在或未來，對隱私的的攻擊力道只會越來越強。舉例來說，即使你有繫安全帶還是有可能在車禍中重傷致死。請使用常識思考，謹慎面對威脅並作出一定程度的防禦。
ASICs are basically special computers created to do only one job, contrary to normal computers, which are made for general purpose. This characteristic makes ASICs very efficient for mining.
The problem is that these devices are very expensive and can be afforded by few. This leads to few entities owning a big amount of the hashrate of the network, which is a serious threat to the security of the network itself. For example, if big ASIC operators collude and manage to gain the majority of the hashrate of the network, they could arbitrarily reject transactions.
Monero fixes this problem by being ASIC-resistant: it uses an algorithm (randomx) that strongly reduces the efficiency of ASICs, making them not profitable to build. Miners can use common consumer hardware, which allows them to compete fairly. The Monero network is currently protected by thousands of miners using 'regular' computers. This results in a network much harder to attack, no miner having significant advantage over other miners (they all use more or less the same hardware).
After you have downloaded the Monero software (GUI and CLI alike), your antivirus or firewall may flag the executables as malware. Some antiviruses only warn you about the possible menace, others go as far as silently removing your downloaded wallet / daemon. This likely happens because of the integrated miner, which is used for mining and for block verification. Some antiviruses may erroneously consider the miner as dangerous software and act to remove it.
The problem is being discussed and solutions are being elaborated. In the meantime, if you get a warning from your antivirus, make sure the software you downloaded is legitimate (see the guides linked below), then add an exception for it in your antivirus, so that it won't get removed or blocked. If you need assistance, feel free to contact the community.
@貨幣替代性 (Fungibility) 是錢幣的基本特性，代表兩個相同單位的錢幣之間沒有差異。如果兩個人交換了一個 10 與兩個 5，沒有人會有所損失。但是，若假設所有人都知道那筆 10 曾被用在一場勒索軟體的攻擊事件中，那其他人還會願意接受這筆交易嗎？很可能不會。即使該持有者與該勒索攻擊事件無關。這就產生了一個問題，接收錢幣的那方將必須持續檢查是否不小心收到了贓款。門羅幣是滿足貨幣替代性的，因此人們再也不需要擔心這個問題。
在門羅幣中，每一筆 @交易 輸出都會帶有一個金鑰映像 (key image)，每個映像只能被該筆交易輸出組合所產生。重複出現的金鑰映像將會使得該筆交易被礦工視為雙重花費 (double-spends) 而拒絕加入 @區塊 中，當每筆新的交易出現時，礦工將會驗證其金鑰映像不得出現在先前的交易中以確保該筆交易不是雙重花費。
即使在交易中的金額是被加密隱藏 (僅有接收方能得知交易金額)，我們也可以驗證每筆交易金額是否有效，因為金額是透過 Pedersen commitments 進行加密表示，意思是沒有外部觀察者可以得知交易輸入與輸出的金額，但是他們可以透過計算 Pedersen commitments 以確認沒有門羅幣是被無中生有的產生。
只要加密後的輸出金額相等於輸入金額總和 (包括發送給接收者的輸出、回到自己錢包的找零輸出、未加密的交易手續費)，那你就可以確認這是一筆有效的交易，沒有門羅幣在這之中被無中生有，Pedersen commitments 使得金額總和可以被驗證是否相等，但每筆交易輸出個別的金額仍然得以維持在未知的狀態。
Monero has a fixed emission rate, not a set maximum supply. Around May 2022, Monero's emission will drop to and permanently remain at 0.3 XMR per minute (0.6 XMR per block). This is approximately 1% inflation for the first year and will approach 0% inflation in future years. This tail emission allows for permanent incentives to secure Monero, even in the far future, while keeping inflation at a very low percent.
Miners process transactions on the Monero network by mining blocks. The miner of a block is paid the constant block reward of .6 XMR, and the transaction fees of the users who have transactions in that block. Monero has the block reward rather than relying solely on the transaction fees to give the miners incentive to keep securing the network with their hashrate, and keep transaction fees low.
The tail emission caused by this constant block reward creates an inflation rate of less than 1% which trends towards 0% over time. The fixed emission of the currency ensures human corruption cannot over inflate the supply. Keeping the network predictable, decentralized, and secure.
There are multiple wallets available for a vast number of platforms. On this website you'll find the wallets released by the Core Team (GUI and CLI) and a list of widely trusted and open source third party wallets for desktop and mobile.
You probably didn't. It's very hard to simply 'lose' your coins, since they are technically nowhere. Your coins 'live' on the blockchain and are linked to your account through a system of public and private keys secured by cryptography. That's why if you don't see your funds, it's probably because of a technical issue. Take a look at the 'Resources & Help' section at the top of this page for a list of useful resources that will help you identify and fix your problem.
Don't worry, your coins are safe. To be able to spend them you only have to download and run the latest Monero software. You can use the mnemonic seed you previously saved to restore your wallet at any time. Note that hard forks in Monero are scheduled and non-contentious. Which means no new coin is created.
如果你是在本地端運作全 @節點 ，你需要將整個 @區塊鏈 複製到你的電腦中。這可以花上不少時間，尤其是當你是使用舊硬碟或是較慢的網路速度更是如此。如果你是用 @遠端節點 ，你電腦將會需要請求獲得一份交易輸出，這過程有可能會需要數個小時完成。請保持耐心，若你為了較快地同步速度而改用遠端節點或輕 @錢包 ，將有可能犧牲一些隱私。
Because new transactions have been recorded on the blockchain from the last time you opened your wallet, which needs to scan all of them to make sure non of those transaction is yours. This process is not necessary in a mymonero-style (openmonero) wallet, a central server (which could be managed by you) does this work for you.
Yes, you can, but you probably shouldn't. Importing an external blockchain is very resource intensive and forces you to trust the entity providing you with the blockchain. It's usually faster to download it the normal way: running a node and letting it synchronize with the other nodes in the network. If you really need to import an external blockchain, you can download one in the 'Downloads' page of this website. Follow the guide below if you are using Windows. If you are a linux user, you can use the tool "monero-blockchain-import", which is included in the archive when you download the GUI or CLI wallets. Start syncing the imported blockchain with this command: "monero-blockchain-import --input-file blockchain.raw".
Support for Tor is still in its infancies, but it's already possible to natively send transactions through the network and to run a Monero daemon on the Tor network. Better Tor and I2P integrations are in progress.
A full node requires a considerable amount of storage and could take a long time to download and verify the entire blockchain, especially on older hardware. If you have limited storage, a pruned node is recommended. It only stores 1/8th of unnecessary blockchain data while keeping the full transaction history. If plenty of storage is available, a full node is recommended but a pruned node still greatly contributes to the network and improves your privacy.
When you download the blockchain, you are downloading the entire history of the transactions that happened in the Monero network since it was created. The transactions and the related data are heavy and the entire history must be kept by every node to ensure it's the same for everybody. Pruning a blockchain allows to run a node which keeps only 1/8 of not strictly necessary blockchain data. This results in a blockchain 2/3 smaller than a full one. Convenient for people with limited disk space. Check out the Moneropedia entries node and remote node for more details.
Yes. You don't need to download the blockchain to transact on the network. You can connect to a remote node, which stores the blockchain for you. All the most common wallets (including GUI and CLI) allow to use remote nodes to transact on the network. There are multiple ways to take advantage of this functionality. For example GUI and CLI offer a 'bootstrap node' feature, which allow people to download their own blockchain while using a remote node to immediately use the network. Ways to improve the usability of the Monero network are constantly being explored.
更多資訊： 如何讓 GUI 錢包連接至遠端節點
Running a personal node is the safest way to interact with the Monero network, because you are in full control and you don't need to rely on third parties. From a general point of view running a node is not dangerous, but keep in mind that your ISP can see you are running a Monero node.
It's always advisable, especially for privacy-conscious users, to use a personal node when transacting on the network to achieve the highest rate of privacy. Some people for convenience prefer to use remote node which are not under their control (public nodes). The convenience of not having to deal with a personal copy of the blockchain comes at a cost: lessened privacy. A remote node operator is able to see from what IP address a transaction comes from (even if cannot see the recipient nor the amount) and in some extreme cases, can make attacks able to reduce your privacy. Some dangers can be mitigated by using remote nodes on the Tor or I2P networks or using a VPN.